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ADDIE Model – Training & Development

ADDIE model is used by the training developers to improve the skills required for the people employed in an organization. The tool helps to create a useful training tool to enhance the capabilities of the employees. This assignment paper would be used by the Tax assessor of New York State that would help to develop the necessary skills to improve in the career field dealing in property assessment evaluation that would help to earn the title of Tax Assessor. Assessors are the officials working in the local government who tries to calculate the real value of the property in a town or a city (Patel et al., 2018). They help the property owners in getting useful information about the market value of the land in a specified region.

The blog would define the ADDIE model that reflects the analysis, design, develop, implement and evaluation of the training programmes required earning the title of a Tax Assessor. This plan would focus on training the trainers using the model to improve the reassessment skills.

 

Analysis

The analysis is a critical part of the overall models that helps to analyze the learner’s environment so that the trainers could develop their skills. Under the analysis part, the instructional goals are identified so that the existing knowledge and skill set of the learner could be identified easily (Lagunes & Huang, 2015). Through this stage, the constraints in the learner's environment could be identified easily. The timeline for the training programmes could be understood easily. On the analysis stage, there are specific steps like performing a needs assessment, a problem statement and then, establishing the goals with the activities that had to be delivered to get the required results.

A) Needs Assessment - A needs assessment is required to identify the gaps between the existing and expected skills so that the employees could be trained as per the demand of an organization. It is seen that reassessment is one of the primary skills of a tax assessor who could evaluate the price of the land in the real sense (Johnson & Wheeler, 2019). It is viewed that the assessing ability of the people in the local areas is evolving with the change in technology, and that is the reason. It becomes essential for a tax assessor to remain updated with the latest skills that the profession holds. In addition, a tax assessor should be able to evaluate the realistic price of the estate. For that, specific courses should be completed by the tax assessors so that their assessment skills are improved.

In this stage, specific responsibilities had to be performed by the Tax assessor, which could be given under the following heads

  • The assessor should be able to inspect new structures and try to evaluate the price at a realistic rate.
  • Should be able to track and approve the tax exemptions
  • Should be able to carry out the responsibilities by using software like RPS
  • They should be able to attend the hearings related to the public grievance and should try to present the arguments in favour of the municipality.
  • They should be able to review the sales data of real estate for getting accurate results.

B) Problem statement - After the needs assessment programme, a problem statement would be created that would help the assessor to improve the chances of getting certification after taking office within three years in the New York State. This would help them to evaluate the realistic price of the estate by doing the programme on the coordinated assessment topic.

C) Goals - The goals of the Tax assessor are to assess the potential eligibility of land, whether it is suitable for the housing options or not. In addition, one of the goals is to create an implementation plan to develop shelters for families (Netzer, 2017).

D) Activities - Activities are the next step after setting up the goals in the program. The activities of a tax assessor in this program are to determine the path to find appropriate housing after being successful in evaluating the standardized vulnerability assessment, including the price of the land.

E) Outcomes - The outcomes are the results that could come from the coordinated assessment programme. Through the programme, the tax assessor could be able to evaluate the special equalization rates in the initial stage of the programme. The county equalization rates could be evaluated by the tax assessor in the initial stages. The long-term goal could be achieved by the participant in being able to assess the equalization rates of land in New York State.

F) Training Analysis checklist

Name/Date ______________________
Needs Assessment
Methods used _____________________________________________________
                        _____________________________________________________
                        ______________________________________________________
Problem statement __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Goals ______________________________________________________________
Activities ___________________________________________________________
Outcomes ______________________________________

G) Training Analysis checklist

Name/Date ______________________
Needs Assessment
Methods used

  • Should be able to carry out the responsibilities by using software like RPS
  • They should be able to attend the hearings related to the public grievance and should try to present the arguments in favour of the municipality.
  • They should be able to review the sales data of real estate for getting accurate results.

Problem statement

  • After the needs assessment programme, a problem statement would be created that would help the assessor to improve the chances of getting certification after taking office within three years in the New York City (Nyc homeless, 2018).
  • This would help them to evaluate the realistic price of the estate by doing the programme on the coordinated assessment topic.

Goals

  • The goals of the Tax assessor are to assess the potential eligibility of land, whether it is suitable for the housing options or not.
  • In addition, one of the goals is to create an implementation plan to develop shelters for families.

Activities

  • Activities are the next step after setting up the goals in the program.
  • The activities of a tax assessor in this program are to determine the path to find appropriate housing after being successful in evaluating the standardized vulnerability assessment, including the price of the land.

Outcomes

  • The outcomes are the results that could come from the coordinated assessment programme.
  • Through the programme, the tax assessor could be able to evaluate the special equalization rates in the initial stage of the programme.
  • The tax assessor could evaluate the county equalization rates in the initial stages.
  • The long-term goal could be achieved by the participant in being able to evaluate the equalization rates of land in New York State.

 

Design

The design phase is the stage where the blueprint of the entire process would be created.  In this stage, the training course would be created in such a manner so that the needs could be identified and specific actions could be taken as per the demand. The design stage should be operated in such a manner so that the participants could be able to know the things that could be learnt in the course (Bawaneh, 2017). The answers should be obtained from the analysis stage. The learning objectives of the course should be evaluated like the ways by which the content had been organized, delivery format, activities of the participants and the mannerism by which the objectives could be fulfilled. There are specific steps in creating a design for the entire program, like planning the instructional strategy, selecting the format of the course and preparing the design format of that course.

Planning the instructional strategy is one of the main points in the design stage. The coordinated assessment programme (CAP) would help the municipalities to use a single assessor under an agreement so that the assessment could be done correctly. As a result, the municipalities could receive a grant of 7 dollars per day. Through the CAP, the tax assessor could be able to use the resources properly. The advantage of attending the CAP is that it would try to reduce the confusion existing in the minds of the assessor, and that helps them to do a proper assessment. The cost of the program for a single employee would be 26.84 dollars.
The next stage involves the grouping content, which must try to combine the learning objectives under a single banner. The content should be appropriately sequenced so that the learner could understand the information correctly. The programme developed is mainly a general to specific class because the course is primarily targeted to improve the land evaluation skills of the tax assessors (Yinger, Bloom & Boersch-Supan, 2016). The course material is available in the government directories of the New York State, which could be assessed by the tax assessors employed for the necessary certification.  In this course, the participants would be given basic training of using the Real property system so that the tax assessors could find it easy to assess the information about a particular land in the local municipalities. In addition, using an RPS system helps the assessor to maintain the knowledge of the inventories and helps the state government to get the data on the stocks used in the real estate. Through the project, the tax assessor could be able to develop the reassessment skills that would help them to evaluate the realistic price of the land under a dynamic environment. Moreover, the assessor would be in constant touch with the staff members so that the data collected could be proved relevant and reliable.
 
 

Development

The development stage is that one where the things that were predicted in the designs stage had to be developed so that the assessors could attend the training. Under this stage, the project is reviewed so that the training programme could be completed within a specific time limit (Auerbach et al., 2017). It is seen that the reassessment skills are one of the most important things for a tax assessor and they should be well updated with the modern techniques so that they could evaluate the price of the land in a better manner. The development of the CAP requires a proper confirmation from the local municipality body, including the advocates so that the skills could be taught to them.

The training is generally provided by the Human resources department of the New York City where the participants would be given a hand on experience in the classroom that would try to explain the technical skills required for a tax assessor. The participants would be given training on using the professional tool of PACT Web and RPS so that they could evaluate the price of the land in a proper manner (Allen, 2017). The instructions that have to be followed by the employees are given on the official website of the CAPS, and the ones who would be attending the workshops could get it in their training sessions. The people who would not be able to participate in the training session could download the desk guide for surveying from the official website.

The training on this course, along with the study materials, would help the assessor to understand the background in a detailed manner. The trainee should be given proper knowledge of the housing interventions in New York City. In addition, the referral procedures to file the complaints in the housing would be trained to them. The different protocols in NYC would be given to a particular organization so that the employees remain updated with the new skills for reassessment.

 

Implement

The trainer develops a particular procedure to train the learners and follows it throughout the implementation period. This particular phase considers the use of the plans developed in the stages of design and development in the ADDIE model and makes their practical usage on the learners. The training activities in this stage include the curriculum courses, testing procedures, learning outcomes and others. In this phase, the project manager uses various tools such as books, CD-ROMs and other hands-on equipment and ensures that the entire learning application is functional (Patel et al., 2018). In this way, the learners also come to know about the application of these new tools and their association with their training.

The training has an important role to play to provide mental support to the learners throughout the entire session. At the same time, the trainers need to have proper knowledge about the capabilities of the learners individually to use the most suitable tool to help them in the learning process. In the current scenario, the learner can speak and write in fluent English, so here the trainer needs to focus on the skills of nonverbal communication and honesty to serve the customers. Implementation phase helps a learner to make a clear idea about his/her capabilities and performance in the training period (Almomen et al., 2016). In most of the cases, trainers upload the course to an LMS and delivery the information – which participants have been enrolled, required marks to pass in assessments and collection of the feedbacks.

In the current case, the learner is about to develop a career as a tax assessor, so the feedback is helpful to make an idea about the transparency and adequacy the learner has adopted for the profession. A tax assessor needs to communicate with the clients directly, so it is necessary to enhance the skills of effective communication by a person who is aiming to work in this particular professional field (Watson, 2016). In this context, the learner needs to apply the skills of speaking in fluent English in a witty manner so that the listener can trust the words and follow them.

 

Evaluate

The main goal of the ADDIE model is to develop a structured and organised framework of methods for a successful training program. Implementation phase delivers feedbacks on the overall performance throughout the entire session, and the evaluation stage is used in improving the performance based on the feedback (Bamrara & Chauhan, 2018). The learner, in the present case scenario, is good in both speaking and writing in English but does not have the experience of communication with strangers or more number of people at a time. This final stage of the training program is fragmented into two parts - Summative and Formative.

This stage of evaluation is expected to answer certain questions, and the key factors of these questions are as follows:
a)    Determination of a system to analyse the participants’ feedback
b)    Determination of the procedure that helps to observe content validity and reliability (Bamrara & Chauhan, 2018)
c)    Determination of the factor that may help in enhancing the effectiveness of  the project
d)    Determination of the procedures of data collection and associate the data with the overall efficiency

 

Kirkpatrick Model

As per the viewpoint of Moldovan (2016), the Kirkpatrick Model is one of the best-known models that help in evaluating and analysing the results of an education program or a training session. The model consists of four stages that help in organising the entire training program successfully and guides the project manager throughout the entire period.
 
The following section will help to understand the use of the Kirkpatrick Model with its four stages to provide useful training to the learner, aims to be a tax assessor.

  • First level: Reactions - the first stage is all about measuring the satisfaction rate of the participants by observing the reactions of the participants towards training. In this stage, the trainer will ask various questions to the participants, as the training is associated with the tax assessment, so the majority of the questions will be based on the topic. Additionally, the learner will also be asked a few questions regarding effective communication. The trainer will try to point out the difference in reactions to the individual question.  
  • Second level: Learning - this second stage increases the knowledge and skills of the participants by analysing their experiences during the training period. Evaluation of the learning refers to gauging the expertise level of the participants and test their knowledge and understanding. As stated by Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, (2016), the learning stage is quite challenging and relatively time-consuming than the first stage. This stage will help the trainer to understand the knowledge of the learner regarding tax assessment along with the methods of maintaining data, information management and communication with the people. It will also find out the drawbacks and lack of knowledge of this participant, which will help the trainer to identify the most suitable tool for further study.
  • Third level: Transfer - the third stage is also about observing the behavioural attitudes of the participants while the trainers try to identify the changes in their activities after the training. It will help to measure the understanding and changes in behaviour attitude of a participant who wants to be tax assessor before and after training. The post-training stage will be comparatively less challenging for the participant to perform the tax assessment procedure because training will enhance the skills (Dewhurst et al., 2015). The trainer targets to evaluate the usefulness of the training program based on the changes in behavioural attitudes of the participant.
  • Fourth level: Results - this is the stage of observing the impacts of the entire training on the learners. Now, this stage evaluates the success of the overall training, and this evaluation is performed by measuring the returns on investments, total spending, improvement of quality of the products, enhanced efficiency of the employees and increased quantity of sales. In this current scenario, the participant will help and properly guide the client regarding tax-related issues. In this stage, the participant will try to establish the career along with enhancing the skills and knowledge.

 
References

Allen, M. T. (2017). Examining Property Tax Value Assessment Error. Journal of Advances in Economics and Finance, 2(1).

Almomen, R. K., Kaufman, D., Alotaibi, H., Al-Rowais, N. A., Albeik, M., & Albattal, S. M. (2016). Applying the ADDIE—analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation—instructional design model to continuing professional development for primary care physicians in Saudi Arabia. Int J Clin Med, 7(08), 538-546.

Auerbach, J., Barton, H., Blunt, T., Chaganti, V., Ghai, B., Meng, A., ... & Flores, P. (2017). Using data science as a community advocacy tool to promote equity in urban renewal programs: An analysis of Atlanta's anti-displacement tax fund. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.02454.

Bamrara, A., & Chauhan, P. (2018). Applying ADDIE Model to Evaluate Faculty Development Programs. International Journal of Smart Education and Urban Society (IJSEUS), 9(2), 25-38.

Bawaneh, S. S. (2017). Tax Collection Mechanism Back to Basics from Tax Bureaucracy to Tax Farming: The Case of Jordan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 8(12).

Dewhurst, D., Harris, M., Foster-Bohm, G., & Odell, G. (2015). Applying the Kirkpatrick model to a coaching program. Training & Development, 42(1), 14.

Johnson, P., & Wheeler, L. A. (2019). Preparing Local Tax Expenditure Reports: A Practical Guide for Local Governments. Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Research Paper Series, (19-03)