Summarize the sociological journal article
Canada is well known for its low social inequality, where differences are welcomed and the government works in every aspect to develop it into a more egalitarian society. Journalists all over the world compare Canada with the US and other states, often concluding that Canada is way more tolerant as a society and has good and liberal rules and policies (Veenstra, 2011). However, sociologists in Canada have, for ages, been questioning this beyond the perfect view of Canada by researching various inequalities that exist in Canadian society and proving them as evidence. Many researchers argue that inequality has been growing since the second half of the twentieth century in Canada. They are of the view that these inequalities are multi-faceted such inequalities in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, and classes and prove to be a heavy blow to the solidarity of the Canadian society. Many researchers that have followed John Porter's study have observed that sex, ethnicity, physical features, and weight, are all interrelated to a Canadian and his/her right to education, income, and health expenditure. Various media houses and reports show the growth of various incidences of discrimination in the country and the increasing number of hate crimes stand as evidence of this fact.
This paper examines views of day-to-day discrimination among the citizens and immigrants of Canada by making use of the Canadian Community Health Survey of the year 2013. The researchers and sociologists noticed that recent immigrants have reported less discrimination than those who have been residing in the country for a longer period. When their experiences were compared, small differences were noticed in the kind of Discrimination that both sections of the society faced (Dewing, 2013). In the year 2013, the Public Health Agency of Canada made an addition to the Canadian Community Health Survey which was a different version of EDS for supporting good research on the relationship between discrimination and its outcomes related to health. This paper uses the national representative data of the country for examining discrimination among the residents of the country by focusing on two major questions:
1. What is the prevalence of various kinds of self-reported day-to-day Discrimination in the country for immigrants?
2. Who is more probably to report an encounter with the various kinds of discrimination that exist daily?
Critically analyze the sociological journal article
Statistical data collected in Canada showed that the hate crimes committed against the Muslim population increased to 61% within one year (2014-15). This showed the increase in the immigration rate in Canada. However, there does not exist much information or data regarding the rapid growth of discrimination in recent years in Canada.
The Human rights commission of Canada has the responsibility of implementing legislation that prohibits discrimination based on race, ethnicity, colour, religion, age, gender, sexual preference, sexual identity, Marital status, disabilities, genetic factors, etc. A common way of measuring the growth of discrimination in the country is the examination of information and data like the nature and quantity of hate crimes that have taken place or the number of human rights cases filed at various levels (Du & Forte, 2016.). Many researchers like Samuel and Verma, however, believe that such methods merely capture the severest kinds of discrimination or the cases that have been filed that immigrants may face. Various sociologists like Williams have researched certain methods of measuring citizens' encounters with discrimination by applying surveying methods. One such method concentrates on what is known as 'Major incidents of discrimination'. In this method, citizens were enquired about their encounters with situations where they were denied services or employment, were removed from their jobs, were denied housing facilities, enquired by the police, were rejected for loans from banks, etc. The Everyday Discrimination scale (originally discovered by Williams) records complaints that are not severe but way more frequent. These recorded questions where individuals were asked how often were they treated unfairly and disrespected because of their social status (Harell & Soroka, 2010). If the individual responded with a yes, other questions like their opinions regarding the reason for this behaviour were asked. After surveying various responses, the most common ones were found to be ancestry, gender, racial background, religion, physical appearance, disabilities, etc.
For several years sociologists and researchers have been using alternate versions of the EDS and have shown results where individuals reveal they have faced multiple kinds of Discrimination and physical and mental torture that have affected their health. Studies conducted by Browne on self-report in Canada showed that immigrants did not have the right to state Canada as their region since they were outsiders. According to most researchers, before 2013 only two surveys had been conducted on a national basis that had observed self-reported experiences: The ethnic diversity survey and the general Social survey. These surveys showed that approximately 20% of individuals belonging to the minority revealed that they had been subjected to Discrimination at least once or more than once. Nathalie and Wijesingha studied the 2004 GSS survey and calculated the impact of discrimination on the health of immigrants in the country and found that these effects were more dominant in females. The GSS data of 2009 studied by DuMont and Forte showed that encounters of Discrimination based on physical appearance and other reasons had major harmful effects on an individual's health.
In this article, the evidence is supported in the form of an interview. The researcher has conducted a survey. In this research case study analysis has been the approach to which the evidence is collected. The evidence shows that more than 23% of the citizens of Canada have been subjected to Discrimination at least once in their life. The most common type of discrimination was found to be based on race (6.7%), based on gender (6.3%), based on age (6.19%), and physical appearance (4.15%). The research also proves that women are 25% more likely to experience Discrimination than men. People who have been separated or divorced are 48% more likely and single ones are 62%. However, whites are 25% less likely to encounter Discrimination as compared to other racial groups. Men, on the other hand, are 75% more likely to report having experienced discrimination based on their sexual preference (especially those who identify themselves as bisexual or gay) than women. This study helped in bringing out all the above-mentioned statistics and data. However, like all reports and studies on Discrimination, this study is also limited by the questions that have been asked in the survey. Like all self-reported methods, there may exist factors that were not taken into consideration (like depression or any other disorder). As mentioned earlier by Kaiser and Major, the EDS may be affected by both minimization and biases (Tannock 2011). Many cases suggest that citizens have reported having experienced overlapping kinds of discrimination in Canada but the minute sample restricts researchers from studying separate factors of this overlapping.
A famous newspaper, The Globe And Mail confirmed the fact that Canada and its racism is an undeniable truth. It expressed its grief by adding that many Canadians are not aware of their history and thereby do not have the knowledge about its darker secrets. It stated various examples of Canada and its racism, mentioning McGill University, one of the country's most prized institutions and its the history of anti-Semitic admission rules and policies that had not been lifted until the second world war. The black settlement of Africville has torn apart without warning and the entire community was driven away. Stated that the UN working group of experts 2017 released a study stating that racial Discrimination and segregation have led to a dangerous impact on citizens of African ancestry and many still live without basic health and housing facilities without education and basic rights. Immigrants were firstly not welcomed and that too they were treated with different attitudes in every sphere of life.